An abdominoplasty is a surgical procedure that removes extra fat and skin from the middle and lower abdomen. The muscles in the abdominal wall can also be tightened during surgery and an abdominoplasty is generally performed for cosmetic reasons. Abdominoplasties are also often referred to as tummy tucks.

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Acne is a skin condition caused by the excess production of oil from the sebaceous glands and the inflammation of the hair follicles. Acne typically appears on the face, chest and back and occurs when pores become clogged. It is the most common skin condition.

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Scars left behind by acne are often an unfortunate secondary, and lasting, effect of the skin condition, which can leave its marks behind as severe depressions in the skin. Most noticeable on the face, acne scars can last a lifetime if not treated, leading people to develop low self-esteem.

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Aesthera PPx uses Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) to deliver quick and painless skin rejuvenation treatments to patients of all ages and skin types. Laser treatments such as these can be highly effective for treating a variety of skin conditions.

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Medical anaesthesia is when patients experience a loss of sensation induced by drugs. There are several different types of anaesthesia used in surgery and medical settings. Anaesthesia can be induced for a wide range of treatments and situations.

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An antioxidant is a type of molecule that can prevent or hinder the oxidation of another molecule. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that is an essential and natural function of the body's molecules; however, it can also produce free radicals which then start chain reactions that can damage other cells.

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Blepharoplasty refers to treatments to remove sagging skin from the upper and lower eyelids, as well as tightening the skin around the eyes - resulting in a more youthful and alert appearance.

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Brow lift surgery can restore a more youthful and open appearance to the focal point of the face, by raising brows and eyelids to combat the sagging and wrinkling effects brought on by the ageing process.

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Buttock lift procedures, known colloquially as 'bum lifts', are treatments to improve contouring and toning of bums and hips by removing excess fat and skin from the buttocks.

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A calf augmentation is a procedure that is designed to improve the appearance of calves by giving them a more muscular look. This is achieved by the insertion of implants under the calf muscle.

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In cosmetic surgery terms, a cannula is a hollow tube made of stainless steel that is used, in conjunction with an aspirator (vacuum suction device), to remove fat deposits from beneath the skin during liposuction and fat removal procedures.

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Cheek or chin augmentation is often carried out to enhance balance, proportion and symmetry in the face. Many patients choose to combine cheek or chin augmentation with treatments to other areas of the face, such as nose reshaping (rhinoplasty) or face lifts (rhytidectomy).

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A chemical peel is a treatment used to improve the appearance of facial skin. Many skin problems are associated with or exacerbated by an excessive build of dead skin cells. Chemical peels can reduce or remove this build up and unclog pores.

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Collagen is a structural protein that is the main support of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage and connective tissue. Collagen occurs naturally in the body and is a strong and fibrous substance.

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A consultation is a formal meeting with a doctor, nurse or surgeon. It offers the patient the chance to meet healthcare providers and find out more about upcoming treatments or surgeries.

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Crow's feet are small wrinkles that appear in the corners of the eyes, and are often identified as one of the first signs of ageing visible in the face. Also known as 'laughter lines', crow's feet are so-called due to their visual resemblance to a bird's footprint.

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Dermabrasion is a surgical procedure that abrades, or planes, the skin surface to remove imperfections and minor scarring. This treatment is designed to improve the texture of the skin.

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Detoxification, more commonly known as detox or body cleansing, refers to a number of practices that some people believe will help cleanse the body of harmful toxins.

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General anaesthesia refers to a state of unconsciousness induced through the use of drugs administered by a qualified professional. Anaesthesia may be performed by a surgeon or a dedicated anaesthetist.

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Gynaecomastia is a medical term describing excessive growth of breast tissue in men. It is an exclusively male disease and refers to an abnormal growth of the glandular tissue in male breasts and excessive development of the male mammary gland.

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Haematoma refers to a collection of blood outside of the blood vessels, which gathers in body tissues or cavities. Haematoma are most commonly apparent as bruising to the skin, and are caused by internal bleeding into the extracellular space following blunt trauma - this can include accidents, falls and surgery.

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An implant refers to any type of object or material that is grafted or inserted into the body. There are many different types of implant and they can be used to correct a number of medical or cosmetic faults.

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Incisions can be made for a variety of reasons, and are typically entry points through which surgeons can extract abnormal tissues or foreign bodies or, alternatively, insert implants. Incisions are usually small to minimise trauma, and can be closed with sutures or surgical staples which are removed once the incision has been given time to heal naturally.

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In a surgical context, inflammation refers to the response of body tissues to injury, infection or irritation, and is a protective reaction. This is sometimes referred to as acute inflammation. The symptoms and indicators of inflammation are redness, swelling, pain and sometimes a feeling of heat in the affected area. Occasionally, inflammation can cause a loss of function.

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One of the most distinctive areas of the face, the shape of a person's jaw line is a common focus area of cosmetic surgery.

The jaw line can also act as a sign of ageing. The lower jaw continues to grow later in life, leading to a more square appearance. This can cause younger people with naturally square jaw lines to appear older than they really are, as opposed to those with curved jaw lines who may appear more youthful.

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Local anaesthesia is used by surgeons and other medical professionals to induce a loss of sensation in areas being treated, in order to reduce or eliminate pain response and distress.

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Microdermabrasion is a gentle non-surgical treatment that exfoliates the top layers of the skin. It is frequently used to treat skin conditions such as sun damage, acne and hyperpigmentation.

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Obagi Blue Skin Peels are a type of skin peel treatment. It is a non surgical procedure that can help rid the skin of blemishes, acne scars, wrinkles, uneven pigmentation and sun damage.

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Otoplasty refers to cosmetic surgery procedures carried out to alter the appearance of a person's ears. Most commonly known as ear reshaping, otoplasty is recognised as one of the oldest cosmetic surgery procedures, with a history dating back to the ancient world.

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Because many skin problems are caused by a build-up of dead cells, peels can be highly effective treatments for unclogging pores and rejuvenating the appearance of skin on the face and other areas.

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Photo skin analysis is carried out by a skin analysis computer, and can be an effective tool for helping patients identify key areas of their skin that could be improved with non surgical treatments.

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Most of the damage inflicted on the skin as people get older is accelerated by prolonged sun exposure. Photoaging is the damage caused by harmful UV radiation, which can result in the appearance of wrinkles, irregular pigmentation, broken blood vessels and loss of skin elasticity. In extreme cases, photoaging is also a leading cause of skin cancers.

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Platysmaplasty, also known as a neck lift, is a cosmetic surgery procedure that reduces the appearance of loose or sagging skin in the neck area and beneath the jaw.

Patients may choose platysmaplasty for a variety of reasons - to remove loose skin and reduce the appearance of wrinkles in their neck that may be caused by ageing, substantial weight loss or other loss of skin elasticity caused by factors such as sun damage or genetics.

Platysmaplasty treatments are suitable for people who are worried about the appearance of their necks and feel that the excess skin is negatively impacting their self-confidence.

Because it is widely held that the neck reveals the signs of ageing more than the face, many patients combine their platysmaplasty with a face lift.

Platysmaplasty procedure

Platysmaplasty procedures are carried out under general anaesthetic, and take approximately two hours to complete. Patients who undergo platysmaplasty treatments need to stay overnight at the hospital.

Consultation and aftercare for platysmaplasty treatments

Recovery time for platysmaplasty treatments varies depending on the individual patient. However, it is advised that patients wear the dressing supplied for two weeks following their treatment, which must be kept dry.

Patients should expect some bruising and soreness around the neck following platysmaplasty. The healing time for incisions can be up to one year, but these incisions - in the hairline and around the ears - are designed to be discreet.

To make sure that platysmaplasty is the best and most suitable choice for the patient, surgeons recommend a consultation to have the procedure explained in detail. This can also help identify risks or recommend alternative or supplementary treatments.

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Post-operative care is an important part of the treatment process for patients undergoing surgery. It helps ensure they achieve the results they expect from procedures, as well as helping patients get back on their feet after more invasive cosmetic surgery.

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Ptosis is a medical term referring to the abnormal lowering or drooping of an organ. It is commonly used to refer to conditions of the eyelid, chin or breast tissue.

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Reconstructive plastic surgery refers to surgical procedures carried out to restore areas of the body following accidents, trauma or disease, or to correct abnormalities caused by birth defects.

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Commonly referred to as nose reshaping, rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure used to improve the function or appearance of the human nose.

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Also known as a face lift, rhytidectomy is one of the most common cosmetic surgery procedures. It involves the removal of excess facial skin to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, sagging skin and deep lines.

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A scar is a mark left behind after a wound to the body has healed. Scars form when the skin heals itself after an incision or trauma and is formed by fibrous tissue such as collagen.

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Sclerotherapy, also known as thread vein removal, is a procedure used to treat visible or malformed blood vessels. It is often used for the treatment of thread veins, spider veins or varicose veins. Sclerotheraphy is predominantly administered to the face and legs.

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Septoplasty treatments involve the removal of cartilage from a patient's nasal cavities, to straighten a deviated septum and improve airflow and remove obstructions in the cavities

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Septorhinoplasty is a plastic surgery procedure to straighten the cartilage and bone in the septum and other areas of the nose with the aim of removing obstructions and improving airflow in the nasal cavities.

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A spider vein is a widened vein that is visible through the surface of the skin. They typically take on a spoke-like formation, hence their name. They are also known as spider telangiectasia.

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Subcutaneous, literally meaning 'beneath the skin', refers to tissues and operations carried out under the outer skin layer.

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Sutures are devices used by surgeons to hold together body tissues following operations. Surgical sutures are typically carried out with the use of a needle and very fine thread. They are used to close incisions made during a wide range of surgical procedures.

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Thigh lift surgery, also known as thighplasty, is a cosmetic surgery treatment that removes loose or sagging skin from the inner thigh and groin area.

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Varicose veins are enlarged veins that most commonly appear on the legs. Varicose veins develop when the leaflet valves that prevent blood from flowing backwards become deformed, allowing blood to flow downwards into veins due to the effects of gravity.

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VISIA® is a complexion analysis system that makes it easier than even before to identify a patient's skin condition and design a unique skin care regime. As well as offering an in-depth analysis of a patient's individual facial characteristics, VISIA® can also be used to plan more effective and personalised rejuvenation treatments to improve the evenness of facial skin and reduce the appearance of wrinkles or sun damage.

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X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation and was first generated in 1891 by Fernando Sanford, a professor of physics at Stanford University. The use of X-rays for medical purposes was first introduced by Major John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham In 1908.

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